谁有南极科考学家Levick关于企鹅行为的研究资料?求这篇研究文章的中译版本

“1913年他回到英国后,并发布了名为《Natural History of the Adelie Penguin/阿德利企鹅自然史》的文章,里面遍披露了Levick 见到的令人震惊的性堕落。”

谁有文章原文?谁有翻译好的中文版?

2 个回答

阿德利企鹅自然史网上要花钱买,很难有免费的
It was the sight of a young male Adelie penguin attempting to have sex with a dead female that particularly
unnerved George Murray Levick, a scientist with the 1910-13 Scott Antarctic Expedition. No such observation had ever been recorded before, as far as he knew, and Levick, a typical Edwardian Englishman, was horrified. Blizzards and freezing cold were one thing. Penguin perversion was another.
Worse was to come, however. Levick spent the Antarctic summer of 1911-12 observing the colony of Adelies at Cape Adare, making him the only scientist to this day to have studied an entire breeding cycle there. During that time, he witnessed males having sex with other males and also with dead females, including several that had died the previous year. He also saw them sexually coerce females and chicks and occasionally kill them.
Levick blamed this "astonishing depravity" on "hooligan males" and wrote down his observations in Greek so that only an educated gentleman would understand the horrors he had witnessed. Back in Britain he produced a paper (in English), titled Natural History of the Adelie Penguin. However, the section about the animal's sexual proclivities was deemed to be so shocking it was removed to preserve decency. Levick then used this material as the basis for a separate short paper, Sexual Habits of the Adelie Penguin, which was privately circulated among a handful of experts.
In fact, Levick's observations turned out to be well ahead of their time. Scientists had to wait another 50 years before the remarkable sexual antics of the Adelie were revealed. By this time his pamphlet and its detailed records of Adelie shenanigans had been lost to science .
But now a copy of Sexual Habits of the Adelie Penguin has been unearthed, thanks to sleuthing by Douglas Russell, curator of birds at the Natural History Museum, who discovered a copy among records of the work of Scott's expeditions and has had it published in the journal Polar Record, with an accompanying analysis of Levick's work.
"The pamphlet, declined for publication with the official Scott expedition reports, commented on the frequency of sexual activity, auto-erotic behaviour, and seemingly aberrant behaviour of young unpaired males and females, including necrophilia, sexual coercion, sexual and physical abuse of chicks and homosexual behaviour," states the analysis written by Russell and colleagues William Sladen and David Ainley. "His observations were, however, accurate, valid and, with the benefit of hindsight, deserving of publication."
Levick's lost masterpiece certainly has its eye-watering moments with its descriptions of male Adelies who gather in "little hooligan bands of half a dozen or more and hang about the outskirts of the knolls, whose inhabitants they annoy by their constant acts of depravity". Injured females are mounted by members of these "gangs", others have their chicks "misused before the very eyes of its parents". Some chicks are crushed and injured, others are killed.
It is startling stuff, though Russell told the Observer that recent studies have helped understand the behaviour of these "hooligan" penguins. "Adelies gather at their colonies in October to start to breed. They have only a few weeks to do that and young adults simply have no experience of how to behave. Many respond to inappropriate cues. Hence the seeming depravity of their behaviour. For example, a dead penguin, lying with its eyes half-open, is very similar in appearance to a compliant female. The result is the so-called necrophilia that Levick witnessed and which so disgusted him."
In addition, the penguin is the most humanlike of all birds in its appearance and its behaviour is most often interpreted in anthropomorphic terms, added Russell. For this reason, Adelie behaviour, when it was observed for the first time in detail, seemed especially shocking.
"Levick was also a gentleman, travelling with a group of men in very difficult circumstances, witnessing behaviour he neither expected nor understood," said Russell. "It is not surprising that he was shocked by his findings."
The discovery of Levick's paper is important because its helps shed new knowledge on a species that has been called the bellwether of climate change. "The Adelie needs pack ice from which to dive to get fish. When that ice disappears, numbers may crash – and we will have a clear warning that things are getting bad," said Russell.
Levick's experiences with the Adelie penguins were not the only root of his suffering in the Antarctic. In February 1912, he and five other members of Scott's team were waiting to be picked up by the expedition ship, Terra Nova, but found that pack ice had blocked its route. The men had to spend an entire Antarctic winter huddled in an ice cave with no provisions and only an occasional seal or penguin to eat. "They ate blubber, cooked with blubber, had blubber lamps," recalled one expedition member. "Their clothes and gear were soaked with blubber, and the soot blackened them, their sleeping bags, cookers, walls and roof, choked their throats and inflamed their eyes."
Remarkably, the men all survived and Levick returned to England in 1913 – in time to sign up for the first world war. He served in the Grand Fleet and at Gallipoli, and after the war founded the British Schools Exploring Society in 1932, of which he remained president until his death in June 1956. An obituary described him as "a truly great English gentleman".

乔治•默里•李威克是一个随1910-13 年斯科特南极探险队的科学家,他看到幼年雄性企鹅企图与死去的雌性发生性行为,这让他感到透不过气来。直到李威克亲眼看到,以往从来没有过这种记载。李威克是一个典型的爱德华七世时代的英国人,他感到有些惶恐。暴风雪和刺骨的寒冷是一个原因,企鹅的性反常行为又是一个原因。
更糟糕的事总会发生。1911-12 年,李威克在南极花了一个夏天的时间在爱迪尔角(Cape Adare)观察艾德里栖息群体,成为当时唯一在那里研究过整个繁殖周期的科学家。在此期间,他见证了与其他雄性还有死去的雌性发生性行为的雄性企鹅,包括前一年已经死了个别的雌性。他还看到他们强奸雌性企鹅和雏企鹅,甚至偶尔还把他们弄死。李威克把这种“瞠目结舌的伤风败俗行为”归咎于“无赖雄性”并把这件事记录下来。
在希腊的观察,以至于只有一个有教养的绅士会懂得他见证过的这种令人毛骨悚然的事。回到英国,他写出了学术一篇论文(英语稿),标题是《艾德里企鹅博物学》。但是,有人认为有关这种动物性倾向的那一段事出怪诞听起来令人害怕,因此就把它拿掉以保持体面。李威克后来用这个材料作为基础单独写了一篇短文《艾德里企鹅的性习惯》,这篇文章在少数专家手里私下传阅。
事实上。李威克的观察证明是十分超前的。在非同寻常的艾德里企鹅古怪的交媾动作为人所知以前,科学家们不得不等待下一个50年了。在这个50年以前,它的小短文和文中关于艾德里企鹅恶作剧的详细记载已经不再属于科学所有了。
但是多亏道博物馆的鸟类管理员格拉斯•拉塞尔的多方查找,一本《艾德里企鹅的性习》抄本现在已经被发掘出来。格拉斯•拉塞尔在斯科特探险著作的记录中发现了一个抄本并把它送到《极地记录》杂志上登载出来,发表时还附有李威克作品的分析。
“这个小短文对性活动的次数、自体性行为和未配偶的雄雌幼崽表面上的异常行为,包括奸尸、性胁迫,进行了评论,由于出版物有官方斯科特探险报告,该文被婉拒。”
虽然罗素尔告诉那个观察者近来的一些研究已经有助于推定这些“无赖”企鹅的习性,但是这种情况是令人吃惊的东西。艾德里企鹅与十月集中在它们的栖息地开始繁殖。它们仅有几周的时间去繁殖后代,刚成年的企鹅简直不具备如何做的经验。许多企鹅按照不适当的提示做出反应。因此,这是它们表面的堕落行为【此处好像缺少文字,意思接不上】。例如,一只死企鹅半睁眼躺着,看起来很像温顺的雌性。结果这是所谓的李威克见证并令他作呕的恋尸癖。
另外,这种企鹅是所有鸟类中最通人性的鸟,它们的习性经常用一些人类形态说法做出解释。由于这个缘故,艾德里习性在第一次仔细观察的时候似乎特别令人震惊。
“在非常艰难的环境中随同一群人旅行并见证他既不期待也不明白的行为的时候,李威克同样还是一个有教养的人。”罗素尔说:“他被自己的发现所震动这件事并不会让人感到惊讶。”
李威克论文的发现是重要的,因为这个发现有助于从至今还称为气候变化前导的一个动物种类的新知识种摆脱出来。罗素尔说:“艾德里企鹅需要借以跳入水中捕鱼的浮冰。如果这种浮冰消失了,企鹅群就会解散——我们将提出事情会要变得糟糕起来的明确警告。”
李威克在艾德里企鹅方面的经历不是在南极唯一遭难的根源。1912年2月,他和斯科特探险队其他的五个成员等待着搭乘考察船特拉•诺沃,却发现浮冰封锁了船的航线。这几个人在没有补给仅有海豹或企鹅吃的情况下,只好挤进一个冰洞里在南极度过了整个冬季。有一个探险成员回忆说:“他们吃鲸脂,用鲸脂煮饭,点鲸脂灯,他们的衣服和用具上都沾上了鲸脂,人以及睡袋、厨具、墙壁和屋顶都被油烟熏黑、喉咙被堵塞、眼睛被熏得红肿。”
不可思议的是这几个人都生还了,李威克与1913年回到英格兰——及时报名参加了第一次世界大战。他在大舰队和噶里波利服役。战后,大不列颠学派探险社与1932年创立,一直到1956年逝世,他担任着会长一职。讣告把他说成是“一个真正的大英绅士”。

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